Turkmenistan is a democratic, law-based, secular State. The form of government is a Presidential republic. The political structure of the Turkmen state is formed in accordance with the Constitution of Turkmenistan, adopted on May 18, 1992 (revised on September 14, 2016). The Сonstitution of Turkmenistan is the basic law of the State. According to that law, Turkmenistan’s state structure is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches which act independently and balance each other. Constitutionally fixed norms and provisions are directly applicable. Laws and other legal acts that contradict the Constitution have no legal force.
The people of Turkmenistan are the bearers of sovereignty and the sole source of State power.
The State guarantees the freedom of religions and confessions and their equality before the law. Religious organizations are separate from the State and may not interfere in State affairs or fulfill state functions. The public education system is separate from religious organizations and is secular.
The territory of Turkmenistan covers 491, 21 thousand sq km. Its territory stretches for 1100 km from west to east and extends for 650 km from north to south. In the north Turkmenistan borders with the Republic of Kazakhstan, in the north-east and in the east Turkmenistan shares borders with the Republic of Uzbekistan, in the south-east Turkmenistan borders with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, and in the south – with the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the west the country’s natural boundary is the Caspian Sea, through which Turkmenistan borders with the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The population of Turkmenistan is more than 6.2 million people. Turkmenistan is a multinational state. There are more than 100 nations and ethnic groups are living in the country.
The Turkmen language is the state language. The use of their native language is guaranteed to all citizens of Turkmenistan. The educational institutions of Turkmenistan ensure learning of three languages – Turkmen, English and Russian. In addition, the higher educational institutions and some specialized secondary schools include study of French, Chinese, German, Japanese and some other foreign languages.
The national currency is manat, put into circulation on November 1, 1993. Currently, the ratio of the national currency to a freely convertible currency is: 3,50 manats = 1 US dollar.
The state and national holidays of Turkmenistan
Work at enterprises, organizations and institutions are not carried out on the following national holiday and memorable days:
New Year – January 1;
International Women’s Day – March 8;
National Spring Holiday (Novruz) – March 21-22;
Day of the Constitution of Turkmenistan and the State Flag of Turkmenistan – May 18;
Turkmenistan’s Independence Day - September 27;
Commemoration Day - October 6;
International Neutrality Day - December 12;
Kurban Bayramy - a specific date Kurban Bayramy is annually determined by the Decree of the President of Turkmenistan;
Oraza Bayram - the specific date of Oraza Bayram is annually determined by the Decree of the President of Turkmenistan.