Following the break-up of the USSR, Kazakhstan was the last of the republics in the history of the Soviet Union to declare independence. This major historical event took place on 16 December 1991. The first states in the country’s history to recognise the independence of Kazakhstan were Turkey, the USA and China.
On 2 January 1992 Kazakhstan became a member of the OSCE. In the same year the Republic was admitted to the United Nations.
On 15 November 1993 Kazakhstan adopted its national currency, the tenge.
On 20 October 1997, a decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan declared the city of Astana (later Nur Sultan) the capital of Kazakhstan.
On 25 February 1999, the first national census of the population of Kazakhstan was conducted.
On 9 July 2000, the last tunnel for nuclear tests on the former test site of Semipalatinsk was destroyed.
On 30 August 2002, the official opening ceremony of the Baiterek Monument took place in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan, which later became one of the main attractions of the city.
Also in 2003, on the initiative of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first Congress of the leaders of world and traditional religions was held in Astana. The most influential representatives of Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Shintoism, Hinduism, Buddhism took part in the work of the first inter-religious forum.
Three years later (2006), the II Congress of the leaders of world religions and traditional religions was held in the capital under the presidency of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev. The event was attended by 25 religious leaders.
2007 was an anniversary year for the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). Kazakhstan responded to the 60th anniversary of ESCAP by issuing a special stamp (“60th anniversary of the founding of ESCAP“). Its author was the famous Kazakh artist D. Mukhamedjanov. The stamp was issued in a total circulation of 50,000 copies.
According to the analysis conducted by the specialists of the Intergovernmental Committee on Statistics of the CIS, Kazakhstan ranked 4th among the CIS countries in terms of industrial growth rates with the 2008 results.
In October 2010 Kazakhstan hosted the 6th Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development in the Asia-Pacific region. This regional forum is held every five years.
Another groundbreaking international social and political event that took place in Kazakhstan in 2010 was the OSCE Summit. This prestigious international forum was held in Astana on 1 and 2 December. During the summit, participants discussed security issues on the European continent, the situation surrounding the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) and the current tasks of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe.