Nukus is the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan. The city is located in the center of Karakalpakstan on the right bank of Amudarja. The city of Nukus was built on the site of the ancient city of Shurcha (Shurcha). According to archaeologists, this settlement originated in the 4th century BC and existed until the 4th century AD. The first mention of the fortress Nukus goes back to the 12th century, which was built as a military fortress. The final construction of the fortress was completed only in 1874, after the central point of the Amudarya region had become the present Turtkul (former Petro-Alexandrovsk).
After acquiring the national status of the Karakalpak region and the entry of the Amudarya region, Turtkul became the capital of the region. However, the city did not meet the criteria of the regional center. In addition, there was always a danger over the city to be washed away by the deep-water Amudarya, because it was in the immediate vicinity of the river: they were only 12 kilometers apart. The government was faced with the question of moving the regional centre to a safer place. On November 2, 1930, the authorities decided to make this city the capital of Karakalpakia. Already on April 1, 1932, the inhabitants of Nukus were able to call their city the capital of the autonomous republic of Karakalpakstan.