The first traces of human activity in the history of Kyrgyzstan before our era date back to the Early or Lower Palaeolithic. The monument at that time was a stone tool found by Okladnikov in 1953 in Central Tien Shan, on the left bank of the On-Archa River. The technique of processing stone tools allows to date the time of their manufacture to the period 300 thousand years ago. A similarly manufactured tool was found in Khoja-Bakyrgan-Sai in the south of Kyrgyzstan.
The Aeneolithic is represented only by the oldest part of the drawings carved on the stones of the Saimaly-Tash tract. It is a grandiose cult centre from the Aeneolithic to the Bronze Age and the Middle Ages.
Cattle-breeding peoples of Central Asia in the middle of the 1st millennium BC were referred to in the sources as “Saks“. They were warlike tribes that played an active role in the political events of Central Asia in the first millennium BC.
In the 3rd century BC, the Hun Empire dominated Central Asia. In 201 B.C. Maode (Maodun) subordinated the possessions of Gegun (Kyrgyzstan), which at that time was located in eastern Tien Shan. The rule of Maodun was an important initial milestone in the history of the Kyrgyz people: the ethnonym “Kyrgyz” was first mentioned in the Chinese chronicle in 201.
The Usuns were the successors of the Saks. After they occupied Zhetisu, Dzungaria and the central Tien Shan, they founded one of the oldest states here. The Usun ruler Künbag inflicted a devastating defeat on the Huns in 71 BC in alliance with the Khan Empire. At that time, part of Kyrgyzstan belonged to the state of Davan in the Fergana Valley. Davan (according to ancient Persian sources – Parcana) was a densely populated country. Especially famous were the Fergana horses, which China wanted to procure for its cavalry. In the years 104-99 B.C. Davan defended its independence in the fight against the Khan Empire. ⇒ History of Kyrgyzstan in the Middle Ages